Palyul Shama Kingdom Relic & Shanyan Patriarchal Clan Society


Pelyul 
Pelyul monastery
Katok monastery 
The relics of Shama Kingdom 
The ruins of Anyebakya Palace 
Block House in Shanyan 
Shanyan Geba (Ghopa)
Pelyul 

Baiyu County of Tibetan Autonomous Prefecture of Ganrze, 1000 kilometers away from Chengdu, is located in the western part of Sichuan Province, the southeast of Qinghai-Tibet Plateau, the east size of upper Jinsha River. It borders with the Xinlong, Batang, Litang, Garze, Dege counties of Garze Prefecture, and it faces Gonjo and Jomda counties of Tibet across the Jinsha River. Most of the residents are Tibetan.
This land, with unique physiognomy, large dumping height and obvious vertical distribution are abundant in underground resources. The wooded area leads the largest acreage in all counties of Southern China. It also contains abundant resources of rare metal, valuable and rare animals, plants and medicinal herbs.
In deep mountains on both banks of the Jinshajiang River at the Sichuan-Tibet border, there live some Tibetans of patriarchal clan. Given this situation, such primitive form of social organization is still full of life even today. They worship the Nyingma Sect of Tibetan Buddhism. 
Gorba organizations are formed according to surnames or occupations. Most of them are located in the Gaiyu, Shama and Shanyan townships of Baiyu County. Some others are found in Gongjor County in eastern Tibet, which faces Baiyu County across the Jinshajiang River

Shama Kingdom Ruins


Located in Shama Village biside Zhama Monastery, its perimeter about 220meters, built in 13th century by Silang Renchen --the 29th generation of Derge Clan. 

 

The ruins of Anyebakya Palace 

Located in Hepi village, Baiyu county, Sichuan with history of more than 900years. Length Between the west and the east is 60M; width 40M.

 

Block House in Shanyan 

The villagers built up their house with other families, 20 meters high with four to five floors and two-meter-thick wall. Each peel has only one door, decorated with auspicious totem. The first floor is stall for cattle. A whole trunk stair of Tibetan style connects the ground floor with the second floor. Generally, each step longs 0.33 meter and the stair has 17 or 19 steps. It must be singular number. In the middle of the second floor, there are five stairs lead to different families.
The second is a big kitchen, also, used as a bedroom and living room. There are ram pot, stone-made milling tools and hearth. After the guests come in, the host will arrange the seat opposite the door and near the hearth, and take out wine and beef to entertain them. In the kitchen, there is still an attic for brewing and ferment. They put an amount of distiller's yeast in the jar, which store full provision, and cover the vessel by wheat straws. After certain days, there will be a jar of mellow wine.
The third floor is special for store up foodstuff and valuables. The forth floor is designed to store fresh harvested foodstuff and livestock's fodder in winter. The roof can be also used as the place to thresh gain. Also, the roof is used as an artery connecting several families.



Shanyan Geba (Ghopa)

Shangyan located in the south of Baiyu County, covers an area of 400 sq. kilometers, with 390 families and 2161 residents. Shanyan, is the transliteration of Tibetan language, which means arduous topography. Geba, alas "pa-cuo", means organization of patrilineal society. According to the historical materials, before the Zhao Erfeng reoccupied Shanyan, here was still in primitive society, and never obey to Tibet or the Han people.
Even today, there is a story spreading in Shanyan village: Shanyan's 45th progenitor had four brothers. One day, mud-rock flow devoured their village, so the four brothers had to escape in their own way. Mengribu, one of them, stranded to Shanyan and was entrenched here as his loot base.. Later, he founded Huoye-geba, means "big eagle". In Geba, whether you are rich or poor, under the sun ,"all Geba are one family".

Gorba means a group of fathers. Varied in size, all Gorba groups are equal and mind their own business. Also as an economic entity, Gorba may have dozens of households.
Only male can be the member of Geba. A boy of patrilineal lines, is a member since he was born. He has the right to take art in the meeting to make decisions for Geba and enjoys the public rights and obligations. He can advise whether have fight or peace talks with other groups of people, how to allot the captures, how to inherit the belongings of those families without man, etc.
Female hasn't the right to be the member of Geba. But they must fulfill their obligations for Geba: keep the secret and obey the decision.
The leader is not hereditary, but selected by all members according to his capability and experience. He must be eloquent, acting as the meeting preside .He hasn't any privileges. They adopt the minority subordinate to the majority.
With the increasing fights and enemies, men have to hide themselves at home and do some housewifery. So, they are always good at needlework and sewing. While staying at home, the drink and chat with friends. Women are engaged in farming, collecting firewood from hill, carrying water and other burdensome labor. Geba never kill woman in fighting and revenge, or, he will degrade himself and haze his repute.
Whoever can seize the most properties will be the most respectable man .All trophy/boot are divided equally. If you break the moral code, you will be punished heavily, even be sentenced to death.
Every year, all Geba members will gather together to swear their loyalty to their group. At this meeting, the elder will narrate the development history and jihad history of Geba, to continue their education on tradition.
The wedding is arranged by Geba. The most unique feature is two Gebas bicker each other on the wedding. They boast how extraordinary they are, and to show up the other side's fault. They try their best to praise the bridegroom's abilities in robing, killing, stealing. etc .They believe they are strong in this way.
Before the child comes out, the woman has to stay in the cattle stall till the child is born out .If a son, the family will kill a goat to celebrate; if a daughter, the woman will be vituperated.
They have sorts of buries such as water burial, celestial burial, cremation, tree burial and so on. They usually patter for the decedent in the coming 49 days. When a child aged under 13 dies, his/her body is buried in a wooden box hung in a tree.

Gaiyu had 89 Gorba groups in 1974. They were distributed in 22 economic accounting units. Each production team boasted four Gorba groups. Larger ones included eight or nine ones. A total of 841 households (with 3,370 people) or 75.08 percent of the total joined Gorba groups. In Shama, however, Gorba member households made up 98.8 percent of the total.

 

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